Term paper of human cloning

Everyone remembers the hoopla or has read of the hoopla that surrounded the birth and survival of the first successfully cloned animal. This is because cloning, to some, is a questionable practice at best. In general terms, cloning is the replication of another animal. It is a process whereby an identical "twin" is created in a lab. However, cloning is not limited to. In my paper i 'm going to be talking about the importance of cloning, the basics of cloning, and some other interesting facts about cloning not just humans but some animals like Dolly the sheep.

I think Cloning is going to help because it helps with cures, it gives us a new way to reproduce, and it finds ways to make the human body better. The cloning of a mammal stimulated debate because technology used to clone a.

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When the term genetic revolution is used, I am pertaining mainly to the issue of cloning. After the new discovery by Scottish researchers, who were responsible for creating the sheep that captured the attention of the world, the society's reproduction and moral issues have taken a different meaning in life.

Human Cloning- Term Paper

Since this new discovery of cloning scientists now have more power than ever and along with this power comes great consequences. Probably it's a bit of both. The question must not be greeted with reflex hysteria but decided quietly, soberly and on its own merits. Cloning is a general term used to describe the replication of biological material Cloning Fact Sheet, Throughout this paper the reasoning behind why cloning is an acceptable and potentially life changing science will be examined.


The matter of human reproductive cloning is a complex topic, in which there are many issues that must be addressed before any actions take place. Any decision based on reproductive cloning will not be clear-cut, and instead will host a multitude of ideas.

In this paper, I will determine, through philosophical thinking, if human reproductive cloning is morally appropriate. First and foremost, it is important to discuss what human cloning is. It is the conception of in vitro embryos that produces.

With scientific discoveries such as cloning many people rely. On the other hand, many people in the society as demonstrated in the book were against cloning where the principle of Kathy school performed her operations secretly. This shows that the society in the book viewed the act of cloning as an immoral act and thus according to Kantian theory, the act of cloning was morally wrong. Generally, cloning according to this theory is morally wrong because the majority in the society rejects the acts Johnson A right-based.

Ethical Issues of Human Cloning

Research Paper: Human Cloning is Justified Imagine a world where disease was non-existent, long term injuries could be healed in half the time, a world where our life spans could be greatened to an extent never seen before by man. This could be achieved with the cloning of humans, artificial cloning is the next evolutionary step for mankind. It has been demonstrated that the transfer of pronuclei or mitotic spindles isolated from the cytoplasm containing mutated mtDNA into healthy cytoplasts can create healthy blastocysts.

So, maternal chromosomes from a faulty egg can be transferred into a healthy egg from which the chromosomes have been removed. Women carrying mitochondrial diseases could bear genetically related children in this way, without passing on defective mitochondria. The issue of how human cloning is viewed has implications not only for the clone or for the person being cloned but also for relevant areas of the society e.

For truly global bioethics, one should keep in mind on the one hand the shared principles and values, e. In order to form an opinion regarding the ethical acceptability of human cloning, one needs to form an opinion about who has moral standing.

Free human cloning Essays and Papers

With the most common cloning technique, SCNT somatic cell nuclear transfer , the destruction of an existing embryo is unavoidable. This introduces an additional question — when does human life start? Depending on how one answers this question e.

Reasons to Purchase an Essay Based on Cloning

Since the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, the issue has been broadened to the level of the cell, and one could say that the debate has become even more blurred. Several scholars have already pointed out that this does not mean the ethical issues will be resolved. According to his position, it is important to understand that embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos and they are not embryo cells.

The authors want to avoid the possible argument that all somatic cells are potential persons Therefore they adhere to the view that the moral status of a cell emerges only when a cell induced reversed to its pluripotency or totipotency is placed into the uterus.

At the individual level, the best known possible outcomes are relief to the problem of infertility, avoidance of transmitting diseases, the possibility to clone someone who had special meaning, and having organs and tissues necessary for transplantation. Human cloning would make it possible for infertile persons or couples to have biologically related offspring.

Human Cloning- Term Paper

Typical situations are women producing no functional ova or men producing no sperm. Cloning could be also seen as a way to help to bring back a lost loved one, someone with special meaning.

Human cloning makes it possible to avoid certain mitochondrial diseases. Also, cloning is a possibility when one partner has a serious hereditary disease, and cloning provides an option in a situation when it is not acceptable to the future parents to involve genes from a third party.

The problem here lies in that it is not possible to know beforehand how similar the clones will be to the exceptional persons they are cloned from. It is debatable whether the mere possibility is enough to allow such thing or not. The strongest argument used for human reproductive cloning is reproductive autonomy. The case for allowing certain means of reproduction is strongest when this particular possibility is the only one for the particular individuals to procreate at all. Philosophically speaking, it would be possible to argue for reproductive autonomy based on the works of the philosophers John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant.

However, it is not clear who has the right to reproduce. This question is now more relevant than ever, as iPS cell technology could soon make it possible for couples of the same sex to have offspring. At the same time, it has been claimed that family life has changed and therefore the traditional model with two parents of opposite sexes and their own genetic offspring is outdated see Takala One could claim that issues regarding reproductive autonomy are overly dominated by Western bioethics e.

In general, Buddhists have a neutral attitude toward cloning and taking into account that no harm is done to those involved, this method of human reproduction does not go against their basic value sets. So this method can be seen as a possibility to help infertile couples. If it does not cause pain to relevant parties and does not destroy life, human cloning could be acceptable see more Schlieter Regarding human reproductive cloning, harms can also occur, both at the individual and the societal level.

Another question is whether they ever will, as research on human subjects is needed to resolve safety issues, but this is considered to be unacceptable. At the societal level, the possible harms are connected with the effect on the gene pool, issues related to research ethics, the human dignity objection, and diminishing respect for human life. According to the Universal Declaration on Human Genome and Human Rights, biological diversity is a fundamental part of human natural heritage.

And this heritage needs to be protected. Issues regarding research ethics also come up at the societal level. The question remains, who and how would one make sure that the process of cloning humans is safe and effective? Probably it will never meet the criteria of ethical standards for human subject research. The risks would be too big and on the other hand, in order to resolve safety issues, human experiments should be conducted, so it is a vicious circle.

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  8. Also, one should not exclude the possibility that exploitation would accompany cloning experiments, e. The argument most often used against human reproductive cloning is the human dignity objection. The notion of human dignity has been nurtured by the natural law tradition and developed through the social teachings of the Catholic Church, so it has been claimed that one should refer to Catholic social ethics when clarifying the concept Haugen